Software

83% of businesses have no established security plan (but they’ve got Kool-Aid)

I (Adriel) read an article published by Charles Cooper of c|net regarding small businesses and their apparent near total lack of awareness with regards to security.  The article claims that 77% of small- and medium-sized businesses think that they are secure yet 83% of those businesses have no established security plan.  These numbers were based on a survey of 1,015 small- and medium-sized businesses that was carried out by the National Cyber Security Alliance and Symantec.

These numbers don’t surprise me at all and, in fact, I think that this false sense of security is an epidemic across businesses of all sizes, not just small-to-medium.  The question that people haven’t asked is why does this false sense of security exist in such a profound way? Are people really ok with feeling safe when they are in fact vulnerable?  Perhaps they are being lied to and are drinking the Kool-Aid…

What I mean is this.  How many software vendors market their products as secure only to have someone identify all sorts of critical vulnerabilities in it later?  Have you ever heard a software vendor suggest that their software might not be highly secure?  Not only is the suggestion that all software is secure an absurd one, but it is a blatant lie.  A more truthful statement is that all software is vulnerable unless it is mathematically demonstrated to be flawless (which by the way is a near impossibility).

Very few software vendors hire third-party  vulnerability discovery and exploitation experts to perform genuine reviews of their products. This is why I always recommend using a third-party service (like us) to vet the software from a security perspective before making a purchase decision.  If the software vendor wants to be privy to the results then they should pay for the engagement because in the end it will improve […]

Selling zero-day’s doesn’t increase your risk, here’s why.

The zero-day exploit market is secretive. People as a whole tend to fear what they don’t understand and substitute fact with speculation.  While very few facts about the zero-day exploit market are publicly available, there are many facts about zero-days that are available.  When those facts are studied it becomes clear that the legitimate zero-day exploit market presents an immeasurably small risk (if any), especially when viewed in contrast with known risks.

Many news outlets, technical reporters, freedom of information supporters, and even security experts have used the zero-day exploit market to generate Fear Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD).  While the concept of a zero-day exploit seems ominous reality is actually far less menacing.  People should be significantly more worried about vulnerabilities that exist in public domain than those that are zero-day.  The misrepresentations about the zero-day market create a dangerous distraction from the very real issues at hand.

One of the most common misrepresentations is that the zero-day exploit market plays a major role in the creation of malware and malware’s ability to spread.  Not only is this categorically untrue but the Microsoft Security Intelligence Report (SIRv11) provides clear statistics that show that malware almost never uses zero-day exploits.  According to SIRv11, less than 6% of malware infections are actually attributed to the exploitation of general vulnerabilities.  Of those successful infections nearly all target known and not zero-day vulnerabilities.

Malware targets and exploits gullibility far more frequently than technical vulnerabilities.  The “ILOVEYOU” worm is a prime example.  The worm would email its self to a victim with a subject of “I LOVE YOU” and an attachment titled “LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.txt.vbs”. The attachment was actually a copy of the worm.  When a person attempted to read the attachment they would inadvertently run […]

Hacking the Sonexis ConferenceManager

Netragard’s Penetration Testing services use a research based methodology called Real Time Dynamic Testing™. Research based methodologies are different in that they focus on identifying both new and known vulnerabilities whereas standard methodologies usually, if not always identify known vulnerabilities. Sometimes when performing research based penetration testing we identify issues that not only affect our customer but also have the potential to impact anyone using a particular technology. Such was the case with the Sonexis ConfrenceManager.

The last time we came across a Sonexis ConferenceManager we found a never before discovered Blind SQL Injection vulnerability.  This time we found a much more serious (also never before discovered) authorization vulnerability. We felt that this discovery deserved a blog entry to help make people aware of the issue as quickly as possible.

What really surprised about this vulnerability was its simplicity and the fact that nobody (not even us) had found it before.  Discovery and exploitation required no wizardry or special talent. We simply had to browse to the affected area of the application and we were given keys to the kingdom (literally). What was even more scary is that this vulnerability could lead to a mass compromise if automated with a specialized Google search (but we won’t give more detail on that here, yet).

So lets dig in…

All versions of the Sonexis ConferenceManager fail to check and see if users attempting to access  the “/admin/backup/settings.asp”, “/admin/backup/download.asp ” or the “/admin/backup/upload.asp ” pages are authorized. Because of this, anyone can browse to one of those pages without first authenticating.  When they do, they’ll have full administrative privileges over the respective Sonexis ConferenceManager pages.  A screen shot of the “settings.asp” age is provided below.

The first thing that we noticed when we accessed the page was that the fields were filled […]

Netragard’s Badge of Honor (Thank you McAfee)

Here at Netragard We Protect You From People Like Us™ and we mean it.  We don’t just run automated scans, massage the output, and draft you a report that makes you feel good.  That’s what many companies do.  Instead, we “hack” you with a methodology that is driven by hands on research, designed to create realistic and elevated levels of threat.  Don’t take our word for it though; McAfee has helped us prove it to the world.

Through their Threat Intelligence service, McAfee Labs listed Netragard as a “High Risk” due to the level of threat that we produced during a recent engagement.  Specifically, we were using a beta variant of our custom Meterbreter malware (not to be confused with Metasploit’s Meterpreter) during an Advanced Penetration Testing engagement.  The beta malware was identified and submitted to McAfee via our customers Incident Response process.  The result was that McAfee listed Netragard as a “High Risk”, which caught our attention (and our customers attention) pretty quickly.

McAfee was absolutely right; we are “High Risk”, or more appropriately, “High Threat”, which in our opinion is critically important when delivering quality Penetration Testing services.  After all, the purpose of a Penetration Test (with regards to I.T security) is to identify the presence of points where a real threat can make its way into or through your IT Infrastructure.  Testing at less than realistic levels of threat is akin to testing a bulletproof vest with a squirt gun.

Netragard uses a methodology that’s been dubbed Real Time Dynamic Testing™ (“RTDT”).  Real Time Dynamic Testing™ is a research driven methodology specifically designed to test the Physical, Electronic (networked and standalone) and Social attack surfaces at a level of threat that is slightly greater than […]

Netragard’s Hacker Interface Device (HID).

We (Netragard) recently completed an engagement for a client with a rather restricted scope. The scope included a single IP address bound to a firewall that offered no services what so ever. It also excluded the use of social attack vectors based on social networks, telephone, or email and disallowed any physical access to the campus and surrounding areas. With all of these limitations in place, we were tasked with penetrating into the network from the perspective of a remote threat, and succeeded.

The first method of attack that people might think of when faced with a challenge like this is the use of the traditional autorun malware on a USB stick. Just mail a bunch of sticks to different people within the target company and wait for someone to plug it in; when they do its game over, they’re infected. That trick worked great back in the day but not so much any more. The first issue is that most people are well aware of the USB stick threat due to the many published articles about the subject. The second is that more and more companies are pushing out group policies that disable the autorun feature in Windows systems. Those two things don’t eliminate the USB stick threat, but they certainly have a significant impact on its level of success and we wanted something more reliable.

Enter PRION, the evil HID.

 

A prion is an infectious agent composed of a protein in a misfolded form. In our case the prion isn’t composed of proteins but instead is composed of electronics which include a teensy microcontroller, a micro USB hub (small one from RadioShack), a mini USB cable (we needed […]

Netragard Challenges your PCI Compliance

The purpose of legitimate Network Penetration Testing is to positively identify risks in a targeted IT Infrastructure before those risks are identified and exploited by malicious hackers. This enables the IT managers to remediate against those risks before they become an issue. To accomplish this the Penetration Test must be driven by people with at least the same degree of skill and persistence as the threat (defined by the malicious hacker). If the Penetration Test is delivered with a skill set that is less than that of the real threat then the test will likely be ineffective. This would be akin to testing the effectiveness a bullet-proof vest with a squirt gun.

Unfortunately most penetration tests don’t test at realistic threat levels. This is especially true with regards to PCI based penetration tests. Most PCI based penetration testing companies do the bare minimum required to satisfy PCI requirement 11.3. This is problematic because it results in businesses passing their PCI penetration tests when they should have failed and it promotes a false sense of security. The truth is that most businesses that pass their annual PCI audits are still relatively easy to hack. If you don’t believe us then let us prove it and hire us (Netragard) to deliver a conditional penetration test. If we can’t penetrate your network using our unrestricted, advanced methodology then the next test is free. (Challenge ends March, 31st 2011).

Netragard: Connect to chaos

The Chevy Volt will be the first car of its type: not because it is a hybrid electric/petrol vehicle, but because GM plans to give each one the company sells its own IP address. The Volt will have no less than 100 microcontrollers running its systems from some 10 million lines of code. This makes some hackers very excited and Adriel Desautels, president of security analysis firm Netragard, very worried.  Before now, you needed physical access to reprogram the software inside a car: an ‘air gap’ protected vehicles from remote tampering. The Volt will have no such physical defence. Without some kind of electronic protection, Desautels sees cars such as the Volt and its likely competitors becoming ‘hugely vulnerable 5000lb pieces of metal’.

Desautels adds: “We are taking systems that were not meant to be exposed to the threats that my team produces and plug it into the internet. Some 14 year old kid will be able to attack your car while you’re driving.

The full article can be found here.

Netragard’s thoughts on Pentesting IPv6 vs IPv4

We’ve heard a bit of “noise” about how IPv6 may impact network penetration testing and how networks may or may not be more secure because of IPv6.  Lets be clear, anyone telling you that IPv6 makes penetration testing harder doesn’t understand the first thing about real penetration testing.

Whats the point of IPv6?

IPv6 was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (“IETF”) to address the issue of IPv4 address space exhaustion.  IPv6 uses a 128-bit address space while IPv4 is only 32 bits.  This means that there are 2128 possible addresses with IPv6, which is far more than the 232 addresses available with IPv4.  This means that there are going to be many more potential targets for a penetration tester to focus on when IPv6 becomes the norm.

What about increased security with IPv6?

The IPv6 specification mandates support for the Internet Protocol Security (“IPSec”) protocol suite, which is designed to secure IP communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP Packet. IPSec operates at the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol suite and so differs from other security systems like the Secure Socket Layer, which operates at the application layer. This is the only significant security enhancement that IPv6 brings to the table and even this has little to no impact on penetration testing.

What some penetration testers are saying about IPv6.

Some penetration testers argue that IPv6 will make the job of a penetration testing more difficult because of the massive increase in potential targets. They claim that the massive increase in potential targets will make the process of discovering live targets impossibly time consuming. They argue that scanning each port/host in an entire IPv6 range could take as long as 13,800,523,054,961,500,000 years.  But why the hell […]

Bypassing Antivirus to Hack You

Many people assume that running antivirus software will protect them from malware (viruses, worms, trojans, etc), but in reality the software is only partially effective. This is true because antivirus software can only detect malware that it knows to look for. Anything that doesn’t match a known malware pattern will pass as a clean and trusted file.Antivirus technologies use virus definition files to define known malware patterns. Those patterns are derived from real world malware variants that are captured in the wild. It is relatively easy to bypass most antivirus technologies by creating new malware or modifying existing malware so that it does not contain any identifiable patterns.One of the modules that our customers can activate when purchasing Penetration Testing services from us, is the Pseudo Malware module. As far as we know, we are one of the few Penetration Testing companies to actually use Pseudo Malware during testing. This module enables our customers to test how effective their defenses are against real world malware threats but in a safe and controllable way. Our choice of Pseudo Malware depends on the target that we intend to penetrate and the number of systems that we intend to compromise. Sometimes we’ll use Pseudo Malware that doesn’t automatically propagate and other times we’ll use auto-propagation. We should mention that this Pseudo Malware is only “Pseudo” because we don’t do anything harmful with it and we use it ethically. The fact of the matter is that this Pseudo Malware is very real and very capable technology.Once we’ve determined what Pseudo Malware variant to go with, we need to augment the Pseudo Malware so that it is not detectable by antivirus […]

Security Vulnerability Penetration Assessment Test?

Our philosophy here at Netragard is that security-testing services must produce a threat that is at least equal to the threat that our customers are likely to face in the real world. If we test our customers at a lesser threat level and a higher-level threat attempts to align with their risks, then they will likely suffer a compromise. If they do suffer a compromise, then the money that they spent on testing services might as well be added to the cost in damages that result from the breach.This is akin to how armor is tested. Armor is designed to protect something from a specific threat. In order to be effective, the armor is exposed to a level of threat that is slightly higher than what it will likely face in the real world. If the armor is penetrated during testing, it is enhanced and hardened until the threat cannot defeat the armor. If armor is penetrated in battle then there are casualties. That class of testing is called Penetration Testing and the level of threat produced has a very significant impact on test quality and results.What is particularly scary is that many of the security vendors who offer Penetration Testing services either don’t know what Penetration Testing is or don’t know the definitions for the terms. Many security vendors confuse Penetration Testing with Vulnerability Assessments and that confusion translates to the customer. The terms are not interchangeable and they do not define methodology, they only define testing class. So before we can explain service quality and threat, we must first properly define services.Based on the English dictionary the word “Vulnerability” is best defined as susceptibility to harm or attack. Being vulnerable is the […]